It seems that Hadley Wickham, the author of the spectacular
ggplot2 library for R, is not content with revolutionizing the world of computational data analysis just once. He keeps doing it. This spring, he released the
dplyr package, a package that proposes a grammar of data manipulation. I predict that
dplyr will become as important for large-scale data analysis and manipulation as
ggplot2 has become for visualization. If you like
ggplot2, you will love
dplyr is the next iteration of the popular
plyr package, only that it is 100 times faster and way more intuitive. It provides a clean interface to work with data sets that are “tidy.” (See also my previous two blog posts on tidy data here and here.) Let me whet your appetite by showing you a simple analysis I did the other day.
I wanted to find out how much evolutionary divergence there is between human genes and the corresponding yeast (S. cerevisiae) orthologs. Specifically, I was interested in the range of sequence identities among genes, i.e., what are the most conserved genes, the most diverged genes, what is the mean divergence, and so on. The analysis has an additional twist in that there are different types of ortholog pairs. There are one-to-one orthologs, where the human gene has exactly one counter-part in the yeast genome, there are one-to-many orthologs, where the gene in one organism has multiple counter-parts in the other organism, and there are many-to-many orthologs, where there are multiple genes in both organisms that are orthologous to each other. Thus, I wanted to carry out my analysis by orthology type.
I went to ensembl and downloaded all human-to-yeast orthologs with their respective sequence identities. The resulting csv file is available here. We can download this file directly into R, using the
RCurl package. We'll also load the
dplyr package, since we'll need it later:
data <- read.csv(textConnection(getURL(url)))
Let's take a look at the data. There are five columns, the gene id for the human gene, the gene id for the
corresponding yeast ortholog, the homology type (one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-many), the percent identity with respect to both the human (
perc.ident.human) and the yeast (
perc.ident.yeast) gene, and a confidence score that tells us how confident we are that the two genes are actually orthologous.
human.gene.ID yeast.gene.ID homology.type perc.ident.human 1 ENSG00000100077 YKL126W ortholog_many2many 19 2 ENSG00000100077 YHR205W ortholog_many2many 18 3 ENSG00000100077 YMR104C ortholog_many2many 18 4 ENSG00000196139 YHR104W ortholog_one2many 33 5 ENSG00000173213 YFL037W ortholog_one2many 71 6 ENSG00000154930 YLR153C ortholog_many2many 43 perc.identity.yeast confidence 1 19 1 2 15 1 3 18 1 4 33 1 5 69 1 6 44 1
Now we're ready for some
dplyr magic. Let's assume we want to analyze the data by homology type, and we want to find the minimum, mean, median, and maximum sequence identity for each homology type, as well as the standard deviation of the identity distribution. All this can be achieved with the following code:
data %>% group_by(homology.type) %>%
Source: local data frame [3 x 6] homology.type min mean std.dev median max 1 ortholog_many2many 1 26.36965 16.37955 22 92 2 ortholog_one2many 0 27.46243 15.18146 25 86 3 ortholog_one2one 1 33.04183 12.89296 31 80
group_by() states that we want to carry out the analysis separately for each homology type, and the function
summarize() calculates the summary statistics (min, mean, etc.) for each group. The operator
%>% is a chaining operator, like a pipe in the UNIX command line. It takes the output from the previous operation and feeds it into the subsequence operation.
As you can see,
dplyr syntax focuses entirely on the logical flow of the data analysis. You don't ever have to worry about bookkeeping, looping over cases, or details of the data storage.
Let’s do another example. Let’s say we’re only interested in one-to-one orthologs, and we want to find the top 10 least diverged yeast genes and list them in descending order. The following lines achieve this:
data %>% filter(homology.type=='ortholog_one2one') %>%
select(yeast.gene.ID, human.gene.ID, perc.ident.human) %>%
Selecting by perc.ident.human yeast.gene.ID human.gene.ID perc.ident.human 1 YLR167W ENSG00000143947 80 2 YDR064W ENSG00000110700 77 3 YKL145W ENSG00000161057 75 4 YOR210W ENSG00000177700 75 5 YGL048C ENSG00000087191 74 6 YPL086C ENSG00000134014 74 7 YPR016C ENSG00000242372 72 8 YJR121W ENSG00000110955 72 9 YDL007W ENSG00000100764 71 10 YEL027W ENSG00000185883 70
filter() selects all rows of the given homology type, the function
select() picks the specific columns we are interested in, the function
top_n() selects the top n values in the last data column (i.e., column
perc.ident.human in this example), and the function
arrange() sorts the data.
If these examples have piqued your interest and you want to learn more, I recommend you start by reading the
dplyr vignette, which you can find here:
There is also an excellent introduction by Kevin Markham, with accompanying 40 minute video, available here: http://rpubs.com/justmarkham/dplyr-tutorial
And have I mentioned already that
dplyr has a database backend, so you can now easily use all the statistical sophistication that R provides on arbitrarily large, remotely stored data sets.
 And if you aren’t familiar with
ggplot2, spend some time with it. It is fantastic, though it may feel alien initially. If you’re used to traditional visualization approaches, you may think in terms of drawing points and lines onto a canvas.
ggplot2 requires you to approach visualization in a completely different way, in terms of mapping features of the data onto aesthetic features of the graph. Once you get this way of thinking, it becomes rather powerful.